Avalanche Tower for manual reloading. Reliable preventive avalanche release for accessible starting zones.

mini-masten-l5

System setup and function

  • operation is being done via the Wyssen Avalanche Control Center WAC.3
  • the tower is placed in the avalanche starting zone
  • up to 6 charges can be loaded at 5 kg of explosive each
  • reloading is being carried out manually over the ladder on the mast
  • power supply is provided by batteries supplied by solar panels

Deployment Box

Solar panels are installed at the deployment box as well as the antenna. Inside the box sealed from the elements is the deployment mechanism, electronic control and the prepared explosive charges. Thanks to the smart concept highest reliability is guaranteed.

  • for the deployment a charge is being dropped out of the deployment box
  • during the free fall of the charge a double ignition is activated
  • the charge detonates hanging on a cord above the snow cover after a time delay
  • the charge height is adjustable when the charges are prepared and loaded

Charge Container

The explosive charge consists of two orange half-shells with pre-mounted pull activated percussion igniters with slow fuse, which are assembled with 5kg of explosives. The charges are assembled by the operator on-site. We deliver the charge containers and the canvas bag for the retaining rope (7.5m). Explosives and other pyrotechnical elements are purchased directly by customers from the appropriate suppliers.

Advantages

  • air blast with a big charge (effective range of up to 260 m in diameter)
  • simple and low priced alternative to the Wyssen Avalanche Tower LS12-5
  • operation via WAC.3 just as the Wyssen Avalanche Tower LS12-5
  • remote control -permits rapid and weather-independent release
  • no personel in danger area

Effectiveness

The greatest degree of success for controlled release of avalanches is achieved by a remote-controlled detonation of an efficient explosive at the right time and in the right place.

From the operator’s point of view, a blasting installation must be extremely reliable and effective as well as being simple to operate and maintain. The installation in the terrain must be as simple as possible and the interference of the installation must have a low impact on this sensitive environment. The Wyssen avalanche tower fulfils these requirements ideally.

Smallest residual risk thanks to the largest effective range

  • blasting above the snow with bigger charges (5kg) gives the maximum effective range up to 260m in diameter
  • explosives with high detonation speeds produce N-shaped pressure waves which has been proven to lead to the best release effect, particularly at a greater distance from the detonation point
  • the possibility of positioning the installation in higher locations in addition to suspending the charge higher enables the effect to be reached in locations of pressure shadow (in couloirs, behind terrain ribs)
  • release of smallest quantities of snow possible, thanks to the greatest effectiveness
  • very good stability test for assessment of the local avalanche danger

Highest reliability

  • no critical or moving parts are exposed to the weather, thanks to its intelligent concept
  • the solar power supply or wind generator avoids the necessity of vulnerable supply lines in the terrain

Reduced closure times thanks to rapid release, around the clock and in all weathers

  • remote-controlled installations allow operation around the clock
  • very rapid operation possible
  • closure times are reduced in the rule to a maximum of 30 minutes
  • clearing away avalanche snow is usually dispensed with, since the avalanche run-outs are short due to the release of smaller portions

Highest cost-effectiveness

  • low investment and operating cost in comparison with permanent constructional protective measures
  • lowest operational costs thanks to its ingenious system concept
  • damage to the infrastructure is avoided by the release of smaller portions
  • economic benefits thanks to reduced closure times

Highest degree of safety for the operating staff

  • no staff in the danger area thanks to remote-controlled release

The smallest interference in nature is very environmentally friendly

  • foundation only uses 1m2
  • short construction times in the terrain simplify planning and implementation
  • blasting over the ground prevents damage to the vegetation cover
  • dismantling after operating life possible without any problems

Operating Software Wyssen Avalanche Control Centre WAC.3

The latest software generation including new hardware for operating, monitoring and data storage of the well-proven Wyssen Avalanche Tower LS12-5.

  • intuitive web-based operating interface
  • extensive additional features (e.g. outside temp., snow height)
  • operation independent of location
  • multiple release from Avalanche Towers possible
  • monitoring of systems 24/7
  • automatic documentation and archiving of activites and system data

Data transfer via mobile network or radio connection

Safety regulations

Personnel

Only those persons are permitted to operate and handle the installation who are in possession of a valid certificate for the artificial release of avalanches with explosives and who have attended a certified course by Wyssen Avalanche Control AG. Furthermore, it is very important that the operating staff have the corresponding training and experience for risk assessment, planning of measures, implementation of measures as well being able to assess secondary avalanches and avalanches that could be larger than expected.

Storage

Approval for storing explosives: for each tower location authorisation must be requested by the customer from the responsible authorities for storing explosives in the avalanche tower deployment boxes during the period of operation.

Basic Principles of Controlled Avalanche Release

It is known from practical experience and from the theory of avalanche release in deep winter, that the effect of a detonation above the snow cover leads to the best results with respect to residual risk of unpredictable avalanches. The explosives used should produce a high detonation speed and a large volume of gas with a high work factor. Tests with numerous experiments show that explosives with the above-mentioned properties and charging positions above the snow cover give the highest effective ranges.
The following table from the WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF Davos Report no. 53/1996 shows the approximate effective ranges for dry new snow of various explosive charge sizes in different positions with respect to the snow surface.

In order to test and to safeguard the avalanche release zone, the whole of the potential release area must be subjected to an additional stress (e.g. by a detonation). This is necessary, because the location of the so-called “hotspots” (super weaknesses) are not known in advance. An acceptable residual risk after blasting operations is only then reached if these “hotspots” have been subjected to a sufficiently high additional stress by high strain rates at the weak layers within the snow cover.

For more information:

HEIGHT OF DETONATION POINT CHARGE SIZE RADIUS OF EFFECTIVE RANGE
TO PREVENT A NATURAL RELEASE
RADIUS OF EFFECTIVE RANGE
TO PREVENT A RELEASE BY A SINGLE SKIER
Blasting above the snow (+3 to 3.5 m) 4 to 5 kg 120 to 130 m 70 m
Blasting above the snow (+2 to 2.5 m) 1.5 to 2.5 kg 80 to 90 m 50 m
Blasting above the snow (approx. +1 m) 4 to 5 kg 80 to 90 m 50 m
Blasting above the snow (approx. +1 m) 1.5 to 2.5 kg 60 to 70 m 35 to 40 m
Surface blasting 4 to 5 kg 50 to 60 m 30 to 35 m
Surface blasting 4 to 5 kg 50 to 60 m 30 to 35 m
Blasting in snow (approx. -0.2 m) 4 to 5 kg 40 m 25 m
Blasting in snow (approx. -0.2 m) 1.5 to 2.5 kg 25 m 15 m
Blasting in snow (-0.7 m) 1.5 to 5 kg 10 m 5 to 10 m
Mortar 12 cm (0 m) 3 kg 40 m
RPG 8.3 cm (0 m) 0.7 kg 20 to 25 m 10 to 15 m
Mortar 8.1 cm (0 m) 0.6 kg 15 to 20 m 10 m
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